“EHÉCATL DE CALIXTLAHUACA” PIEZA ICÓNICA DE LA CULTURA MEXICA

 .- Fue hallada por el arqueólogo José García Payón, pionero de la arqueológica mexicana, durante sus excavaciones en la zona arqueológica de Calixtlahuaca, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX

TOLUCA.- La escultura “Ehécatl de Calixtlahuaca” es una pieza icónica que forma parte del acervo del Museo de Antropología e Historia del Estado de México, considerada una de las obras maestras de la cultura mexica y de gran relevancia para la reconstrucción del desarrollo histórico de la región del Valle de Toluca.

Por sus características, la pieza debe ser apreciada desde una perspectiva más sensibilizada de su relevancia académica para la entidad y lo que representa para la arqueología mesoamericana y mexicana en general.

Así lo refirió el arqueólogo Eduardo Escalante Carrillo, Director del Museo de Antropología e Historia de la entidad mexiquense, quien destacó que se trata de una deidad que se representa en la arqueológica mesoamericana y mexica.

“Fue hallado en la zona arqueológica de Calixtlahuaca, muy cerca de la ciudad de Toluca y desde su hallazgo se ha convertido en una pieza icónica para referirnos a la escultura mexica.

“Por sus dimensiones y relevancia arqueológica ha formado parte del acervo del Estado de México desde su hallazgo, que fue en la primera mitad del siglo XX”, detalló.

Escalante Carrillo señaló que las primeras excavaciones en la zona arqueológica de Calixtlahuaca empezaron alrededor de 1928, pero el proyecto más amplio e intensivo se llevó a cabo en la década de 1930, el cual estuvo coordinado por el arqueólogo José García Payón.

“García Payón fue un arqueólogo eminente, quien empezó su trayectoria en Calixtlahuaca, Toluca, Estado de México, y posteriormente en la costa del Golfo, considerado como uno de los pioneros de la arqueología mexicana.

“Él empezó a excavar los principales monumentos de Calixtlahuaca, principalmente el templo circular dedicado a “Ehécatl”, durante las excavaciones del basamento de este edifico, fue que encontró las partes de la escultura, se encontró fragmentada, por ello la relevancia de esta pieza”, expresó.

Su valor estético es relevante por la simplicidad que posee, ya que al pensar en escultura mexica o mesoamericana las primeras referencias son los grandes monolitos como el “Cuatlicue” y “Piedra del Sol”, o las grandes cabezas de serpiente.

“Su estética es casi anatómicamente correcta, tanto en tamaño como en diseño, mide 1.80 metros y el cuerpo es humano, porta un taparrabos, sandalias y el tradicional pico de ave que es el que identifica a las deidades del viento, en este caso Ehécatl, así como la forma del tallado, que implicó una especialización para que quedara limpia y simplificada; por ello ha sido una de las pocas piezas del Estado de México que ha salido del país, ha estado en Italia y otras exposiciones internacionales”, detalló.

En cuanto a su valor académico o científico, Escalante Carrillo detalló que por sus dimensiones y la forma en que se encontró, la pieza está asociada a un edificio que también es dedicado a esta deidad mesoamericana y que ha brindado las herramientas para decir que los edificios circulares durante la época del dominio mexica, eran dedicados a Ehécatl.

“Esta pieza tiene uno de sus brazos flexionado como si estuviera sosteniendo una bandera, lo que también nos ha dado herramientas para identificarla como un portaestandarte y no sólo una escultura; los portaestandartes son piezas relevantes para los sitios prehispánicos ya que eran instalados en lugares estratégicos para que pudieran ser visto”.

Por el momento, el Ehécatl de Calixtlahuaca puede ser apreciado de mejor manera a través del programa virtual Cultura y Deporte en un Click 3.0, en Facebook: @CulturaEdomex y próximamente en la reapertura del Museo de Antropología e Historia del Estado de México.

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